The MGI is an instrument which was developed to assess postnatal quality of life. Using the MGI in cross-cultural research involves its application alongside other instruments (Symon 2012). Thus additional questions and/or questionnaires had to be designed. Time and resources can be saved by using questions from relevant published surveys. This approach allows for comparison of the findings with other studies (Boynton & Greenhalgh 2004). However, it is important to decide what information should be collected. Variations in constraining factors across nations such as spoken language, or laws and regulations which restrict aspect of survey practice must also be considered (Lynn 2003). Not to include cultural aspects into the questionnaires, however investigate them separately, is sometimes advisable – even in a cross cultural setting. To identify lack of clarity and inadequate questions, a pilot test should be conducted (Rattray & Jones 2007).
The “Postnatal care in Grampian” survey by Glazener and colleagues (1993) and the “National Survey of Women’s Experience of Maternity Care” reported by Redshaw and Heikkila (2010) offered useful validated additional questions. Several questions from the “Postnatal care in Grampian” survey corresponded to scales. One was the Postnatal Morbidity Index (PMI) which was developed by Glazener and colleagues (1993, 1995) and used for the validation of the original English version of the MGI. Three components were included in the PMI: maternal physical morbidity, infantile physical morbidity and a descriptive list of baby adjectives (Glazener et al. 1995, Glazener et al. 2005, Symon et al. 2003). The second, more general instrument was the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The HADS was developed by Zigmond and Snaith (1983) and is a self-assessment tool consisting of 14 items which can be subdivided into an anxiety and into a depression subscale. The HADS has been translated into several languages, including German (Zigmond & Snaith 1983, Hermann & Buss 1994).
The above extract is part of the report titled "STSM on designing and translating questionnaires: The student’s perspective and lessons learnt" by Susanne Grylka-Baeschlin, Edwin van Teijlingen, Mechthild M. Gross
Susanne Grylka-Baeschlin, BSc, MSc, Midwife, Midwifery Research and Education Unit, Hannover Medical School
Edwin van Teijlingen, PhD, Professor, School of Health and Social Care, Bournemouth University
Mechthild M. Gross, RM, RN, BSc, MSc, PD Dr., Midwifery Research and Education Unit, Hannover Medical School